Publications of the GREET Model Development and Applications Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory
Wednesday 16th of April 2014

Publications of the GREET Model Development and Applications. This document provides the title, authors, publication date, venue of availability, and a description of the content of each GREET model report, which are listed in chronological order.



Title:
Impact of the renewable Oxygenate Standard for Reformulated Gasoline on Ethanol Demand, Energy Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors:
Kevin C. Stork and Margaret K. Singh

Publication Date:
April 1, 1995

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/oxy-standard

Content:




Title:
GREET 1.0 - Transportation Fuel Cycles Model: Methodology and Use

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 1, 1996

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/c4z3r4c2

Content:
This is the first report to document the development of the first GREET version with general simulation approaches of fuel-cycle analysis.



Title:
Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

Authors:
M. Wang, C. Saricks, M. Wu

Publication Date:
December 1, 1997

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/oofq1amb

Content:
This is the first report to document key assumptions and results of corn-based ethanol simulated with the GREET model. The report documents different methods of dealing with co-products from corn ethanol plants. It is the first report to document detailed data and analysis of N2O emissions from cornfields. It is the first report to present Argonne's results on energy and GHG emissions by corn ethanol relative to petroleum gasoline



Title:
Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors:
M. Wang, C. Saricks, D. Santini

Publication Date:
January 1, 1999

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/xf8nbkoc

Content:
This report presents updated results of energy use and GHG emissions of corn ethanol simulated with the GREET model. The report documents displacement ratios between co-products of corn ethanol and conventional animal feeds and inclusion of GHG effects of direct land use changes.



Title:
Transportation Fuel-Cycle Analysis: What Can the GREET Model Do?

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
May 1, 1999

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/sbq9lo5o

Content:




Title:
Technical Report: GREET 1.5 -- Transportation Fuel-Cycle Model - Volume 1: Methodology, Development, Use, and Results

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 1999

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/20z8ihl0

Content:
This report thoroughly documents methodologies, key assumptions and their data sources, and results of fuel-cycle analysis for vehicle/fuel systems with the GREET model. It lays out calculations logistics for energy use and emissions of well-to-pump stages. It also presents results of several major fuel-cycle analysis studies available at that time. It is also the first report to present WTW results of all vehicle/fuel systems in the GREET model.



Title:
Technical Report: GREET 1.5 -- Transportation Fuel-Cycle Model - Volume 2: Appendixes of Data and Results

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 1999

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/w1hsudgs

Content:
This report thoroughly documents methodologies, key assumptions and their data sources, and results of fuel-cycle analysis for vehicle/fuel systems with the GREET model. It lays out calculations logistics for energy use and emissions of well-to-pump stages. It also presents results of several major fuel-cycle analysis studies available at that time. It is also the first report to present WTW results of all vehicle/fuel systems in the GREET model.



Title:
The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Version 1.5

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 1999

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/h3k81jas

Content:
This document briefly outlines the model structure of GREET 1.5.



Title:
A Full-Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Energy and Emissions Impacts of Transportation Fuels Produced from Natural Gas

Authors:
M. Wang, H. Huang

Publication Date:
December 1, 1999

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/xfcbsvdv

Content:
This report documents the development of transportation fuel pathways based on natural gas and the results of these pathways. It presents fuel production technologies, key assumptions and their data sources, and results of natural gas-based fuel production pathways. This report reflects revisions of key assumptions regarding NG-based fuels in the GREET version at that time.



Title:
Contribution of Feedstock and Fuel Transportation to Total Fuel-Cycle Energy Use and Emissions (abstract)

Authors:
D. He, M. Wang

Publication Date:
January 1, 2000

Venue of Availability:
SAE, International Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition 2000-01-2976
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/qz6103oy

Content:
In recent years, various alternative fuels have been proposed and studied for application in motor vehicles. Consequently, fuel-cycle analyses have been conducted to evaluate their energy and emissions effects. In a typical fuel-cycle analysis, feedstock recovery; feedstock transportation and storage; fuel production; and fuel transportation, distribution, and storage are examined. The general belief is that transportation and storage of feedstocks and fuels have small impacts on fuel-cycle results. However, no thorough studies have been conducted to confirm or disprove this belief. Transportation of feedstocks and fuels via different transportation modes requires use of various fuels and generates air pollutant emissions. Storage of liquid and gaseous fuels is subject to fuel losses, which also lead to air pollutant emissions. In fuel-cycle analyses, while feedstock recovery and fuel production have been studied carefully, transportation and storage of feedstocks and fuels are often not studied in detail. As part of a comprehensive fuel-cycle analysis at Argonne National Laboratory, we recently began to characterize transportation modes for different feedstock types, fuel types, production locations, and consumption locations. We collected data on the energy intensities of various transportation modes and the distances traveled for given feedstocks and fuels. We included five transportation modes - ocean tanker, barge, truck, rail, and pipeline - for various feedstocks and fuels. On the basis of the collected data, we estimated energy use and emissions associated with transportation and storage of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, gaseous and liquid hydrogen, and Fischer-Tropsch diesel. Our assessment indicates that, in some cases, transportation, storage, and distribution (T&S&D) can make a significant contribution to total fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for transportation fuels. For example, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from T&S&D of gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and ethanol can comprise over 50% of total upstream emissions. Moreover, when fuel losses are taken into account, T&S&D can contribute over 60% of upstream VOC emissions for gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and methanol.



Title:
GREET 1.5a: Changes from GREET 1.5

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
January 1, 2000

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ou0mj7gg

Content:
This memorandum documents changes from GREET1.5 to GREET1.5a.



Title:
Corn-Based Ethanol Does Indeed Achieve Energy Benefits

Authors:
M. Wang, D. Santini

Publication Date:
February 15, 2000

Venue of Availability:
ECO: Ethanol, Climate Change, Oil Reduction
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/gnop85vp

Content:
We conducted a series of detailed analyses on energy and emission impacts of corn ethanol from 1997 through 1999. During our analyses, we researched improvements in energy intensity of corn farming and ethanol production by studying publicly available data and by contacting USDA, experts in the Midwestern farming and meat production communities, and ethanol plant designers and operators. Our research showed that corn productivity (defined as corn yield per unit of chemical input) increased by 30% between the early 1970s and mid-1990s. We also found that energy intensity of ethanol production (defined as energy use in ethanol plants per unit of ethanol produced) decreased by about 40% between the mid-1980s and late 1990s.



Title:
Fuel-Cycle Emissions for Conventional and Alternative-Fuel Vehicles: An Assessment of Air Toxics

Authors:
J. Winebrake, D. He, M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 2000

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/qmanmyv9

Content:
This report provides information on Argonne's efforts to use the GREET model to estimate air toxics emissions. GREET was modified to account for the following important toxic pollutants: acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde. This is the first to consider fuel-cycle emissions of these pollutants for alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Through this study, an air toxics version of the GREET model was developed.



Title:
GM Study: Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - North American Analysis - Appendix A: Probability Distribution Functions

Authors:
J. Wallace, M. Wang, T. Weber, A. Finizza

Publication Date:
June 1, 2001

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/d4f8x465

Content:
This report documents work conducted by several organizations (including Argonne) where GREET was used to examine energy and GHG emission effects of over 100 vehicle/fuel systems. Through this effort, the stochastic simulations feature was developed for the GREET model. In addition, petroleum refining efficiencies were revised in GREET based on data from three petroleum refining studies. WTP energy efficiencies in GREET were revised through this effort.



Title:
GM Study: Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - North American Analysis - Appendix B: Complete Well-to-Tank Results

Authors:
J. Wallace, M. Wang, T. Weber, A. Finizza

Publication Date:
June 1, 2001

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/4tv5yxfx

Content:
This report documents work conducted by several organizations (including Argonne) where GREET was used to examine energy and GHG emission effects of over 100 vehicle/fuel systems. Through this effort, the stochastic simulations feature was developed for the GREET model. In addition, petroleum refining efficiencies were revised in GREET based on data from three petroleum refining studies. WTP energy efficiencies in GREET were revised through this effort.



Title:
Development and Use of GREET 1.6 Fuel-Cycle Model for Transportation Fuels and Vehicle Technologies

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 1, 2001

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/3bjc9gly

Content:
This report documents new pathways, including petroleum to crude naphtha, NG to naphtha via the Fischer-Tropsch process, and electricity to gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrogen via electrolysis, and key results of GREET 1.6. This was the first GREET version to have a graphic user interface that interacted with the spreadsheet and to incorporate uncertainty analysis of the fuel pathways. Also, in previous GREET versions, energy use and emissions from transporting energy feedstocks and fuels were simulated by using energy efficiencies as inputs to different transportation activities-similar to simulations of feedstock and fuel production activities. In the new version, transportation-related activities are simulated by using input parameters, such as transportation modes, transportation distances, energy use intensities for various transportation modes, and other factors.



Title:
GM Study: Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - North American Analysis - Volume 2: Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems

Authors:
J. Wallace, M. Wang, T. Weber, A. Finizza

Publication Date:
June 1, 2001

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/bbe1lqj9

Content:
This report documents work conducted by several organizations (including Argonne) where GREET was used to examine energy and GHG emission effects of over 100 vehicle/fuel systems. Through this effort, the stochastic simulations feature was developed for the GREET model. In addition, petroleum refining efficiencies were revised in GREET based on data from three petroleum refining studies. WTP energy efficiencies in GREET were revised through this effort.



Title:
GM Study: Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - North American Analysis - Volume 3: Transportation Fuels

Authors:
J. Wallace, M. Wang, T. Weber, A. Finizza

Publication Date:
June 1, 2001

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/wft2tv3v

Content:
This report documents work conducted by several organizations (including Argonne) where GREET was used to examine energy and GHG emission effects of over 100 vehicle/fuel systems. Through this effort, the stochastic simulations feature was developed for the GREET model. In addition, petroleum refining efficiencies were revised in GREET based on data from three petroleum refining studies. WTP energy efficiencies in GREET were revised through this effort.



Title:
GM Study: Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - North American Analysis - Volume 1: Executive Summary Report

Authors:
J. Wallace, M. Wang, T. Weber, A. Finizza

Publication Date:
June 1, 2001

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/3plz9fyi

Content:
This report documents work conducted by several organizations (including Argonne) where GREET was used to examine energy and GHG emission effects of over 100 vehicle/fuel systems. Through this effort, the stochastic simulations feature was developed for the GREET model. In addition, petroleum refining efficiencies were revised in GREET based on data from three petroleum refining studies. WTP energy efficiencies in GREET were revised through this effort.



Title:
The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update

Authors:
H. Shapouri, J. Duffield, M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 1, 2002

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/5dfmot4h

Content:
Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy output:input ratio of 1.34.



Title:
Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Effects of Fuel Ethanol

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 1, 2002

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/pctkd1qm

Content:




Title:
Soil Carbon Changes for Bioenergy Crops

Authors:
D. Andress

Publication Date:
September 1, 2002

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/rfihxb2h

Content:
This report details the characterization of the soil carbon sequestration for three bioenergy crops (switchgrass, poplars, and willows) for use in the GREET model. In addition, this report documents methodologies, key issues, and data needs in addressing soil carbon from land use changes caused by biofuel production in the context of a life-cycle analysis. Bioenergy crops, which displace fossil fuels when used to produce ethanol, bio-based products, and/or electricity, have the potential to further reduce atmospheric carbon levels by building up soil carbon levels, especially when planted on lands where these levels have been reduced by intensive tillage. A three-step process is used to conduct this study. First, the results of an economic analysis were used to determine crop yields, geographic locations for bioenergy crop production and land use changes. Next, a soil carbon model was used to estimate regional soil carbon changes on a per hectare basis over time, based on the regional yield and land use data calculated from the economic analysis. Finally, the data from the first two steps were combined to calculate the soil changes per unit of biomass as a function of time. In addition, the regional data was aggregated to make a national estimate. These results were applied to the methodology used in GREET to assign carbon changes to a unit of biomass (grams of carbon dioxide per dry ton of biomass) by calculating the total soil carbon changes over the life of the bioenergy crop farm and divide the resulting value by the total biomass production during that period.



Title:
Fuel Choices for Fuel-Cell Vehicles: Well-to-Wheels Energy and Emission Impacts

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
November 1, 2002

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/yhbzjgxn

Content:




Title:
Fuel Choices for Fuel-Cell Vehicles: Well-to-Wheels Energy and Emission Impacts (abstract)

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
November 2, 2002

Venue of Availability:
Journal of Power Sources Volume 112 (2002): pp. 307-321
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/vmuujx18

Content:
Because of their high energy efficiencies and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. While hydrogen will likely be the ultimate fuel to power fuel-cell vehicles, because of current infrastructure constraints, hydrogen-carrying fuels are being investigated as transitional fuel-cell fuels. A complete well-to-wheels evaluation of fuel-cell vehicle energy and emission effects that examines (1) energy feedstock recovery and transportation; (2) fuel production, transportation, and distribution; and (3) vehicle operation must be conducted to assist decision makers in selecting the fuel-cell fuels that achieve the greatest energy and emission benefits. A fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory - called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model - was used to evaluate well-to-wheels energy and emission impacts of various fuel-cell fuels. The results show that different fuel-cell fuels can have significantly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects. Therefore, if fuel-cell vehicles are to achieve the envisioned energy and emission reduction benefits, pathways for producing the fuels that power them must be carefully examined.



Title:
Benefits and Costs of Hydrogen Fuels

Authors:
M. Wang and M. Mintz

Publication Date:
January 1, 2003

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/gkhuq2ro

Content:




Title:
Well-to-Wheels Energy and Emission Impacts of Vehicle/Fuel Systems

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
April 1, 2003

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ea30hyon

Content:




Title:
Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Emission Impacts of Fuel Ethanol

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
May 1, 2003

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/kkjvioz3

Content:




Title:
Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions -- Hybrid Electric and Fuel-Cell Vehicles

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 1, 2003

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/6vm6j7ll

Content:




Title:
Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emission Impacts of Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Urban Buses and Farming Tractors

Authors:
M. Wang, C. Saricks, H. Lee

Publication Date:
June 1, 2003

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/0kvjl6mv

Content:
This report documents WTW analysis of diesel and ethanol blends for use in urban buses and farming tractors. Through this study, energy use in fertilizer plants is thoroughly examined. Also, N2O emissions from cornfields are updated. Both are reflected in the GREET version developed at that time.



Title:
Allocation of Energy Use in Petroleum Refineries to Petroleum Products: Implications for Life-Cycle Energy Use and Emission Inventory of Petroleum Transportation Fuels

Authors:
M. Wang, H. Lee, J. Molburg

Publication Date:
July 1, 2003

Venue of Availability:
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Volume 9, Number 1, 34-44
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/1c49xpjg

Content:
Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes.



Title:
Might Canadian Oil Sands Promote Hydrogen Production Technologies for Transportation? - Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Oil Sands Recovery and Upgrading

Authors:
R. Larsen, M. Wang, Y. Wu, A. Vyas, D. Santini, M. Mintz

Publication Date:
April 1, 2004

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/hairbxzd

Content:




Title:
Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy

Authors:
Y. Wu, M. Wang, A. Vyas, D. Wade

Publication Date:
June 1, 2004

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/xu5rq4um

Content:




Title:
Might Canadian Oil Sands Promote Hydrogen Production for Transportation? - Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Oil Sands Recovery and Upgrading (abstract)

Authors:
R. Larsen, M. Wang, Y. Wu, A. Vyas, D. Santini, M. Mintz

Publication Date:
April 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:
World Resource Review, Volume 17, No.2: 220-242 (2005)
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/xsce3024

Content:
As world oil demand increases and OECD production has stagnated, oil price has moved above U.S. $50 a barrel. While worldwide conventional oil reserves continue to deplete, there are large amounts of "unconventional" oil reserves worldwide for recovery and upgrading. Among unconventional oil types, Canadian oil sands, primarily in Western Canadian Alberta province, have experienced large increases in production in recent years. This trend is predicted to continue to reach about 5 million barrels a day oil production by 2030. Recovery and upgrading of oil sands requires a large amount of steam and hydrogen, whose production demands a large amount of energy and generates a large amount of greenhouse gas emissions. In fact, the majority of natural gas available in Western Canada would be consumed by oil sands operations, if natural gas will continue to be the fuel for the operations and if the scale of oil sands operations will increase as predicted. Also, the amount of greenhouse gas emissions generated from the operations could challenge Canada's fulfillment of its Kyoto commitment of reducing Canada's total greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we analyzed energy use and greenhouse emissions of Canadian oil sands recovery and upgrading with the current practice (where steam and hydrogen are produced with natural gas) and with alternative practices of providing steam and hydrogen. Although we found that the current practices requires a large amount of natural gas and generates a large amount of greenhouse gases, alternatives such as using nuclear power to provide steam and hydrogen can help reduce natural gas requirements and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, if coal is used to generate steam and hydrogen, greenhouse gas emissions could be increased further from the current practice. We realize that nuclear-based options are long-term options. However, there is also an anticipated long-term demand for hydrogen for fuel-cell vehicle applications. While fuel-cell vehicles are still in the research and development stage, the immediate demand for hydrogen by oil sands operations could help jump start low-carbon hydrogen production technologies such as nuclear-based options. Low-emissions hydrogen production operations for oil sands operations could thereby offer a test bed for low-emission hydrogen production options for fuel-cell vehicle applications.



Title:
Mobility Chains Analysis of Technologies for Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Vehicles Fueled with Biofuels: Application of the GREET Model to the Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) Project

Authors:
M. Wu, Y. Wu, M. Wang

Publication Date:
May 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ifjibaj3

Content:
This report documents the production of multiple cellulosic biofuels from switchgrass via biochemical and thermochemical conversions. Bioethanol was produced through consolidated bioprocessing. Bio-Fischer-Tropsch diesel, bio-Fischer-Tropsch naphtha, bio-dimethyl-ether, and co-product bio-electricity were produced through thermochemical gasification followed by syngas synthesis and GTCC or steam turbine. Pathways analysis was based on process simulation by Dartmouth College and Princeton University. They evaluated energy and GHG benefits of cellulosic biofuels in the year 2025. Results of this study show various production options using switchgrass-based biofuel, their fossil energy use, and life cycle GHG emission reductions relative to conventional gasoline. GREET's herbaceous ethanol pathway was updated through this effort.



Title:
GM Study: Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions

Authors:
N. Brinkman, M. Wang, T. Weber, T. Darlington

Publication Date:
May 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/4mz3q5dw

Content:
This study updates and supplements a previous (2001) North American study, conducted by GM and others (General Motors [GM] et al. 2001), of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with advanced vehicle/fuel systems (GM Phase 1 North American study). The primary purpose of this Phase 2 study is to address criteria pollutant emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 microns (PM10), and sulfur oxide emissions (SOx). We also updated the vehicle modeling for energy consumption with the latest powertrain maps and added some additional propulsion systems, such as hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs). As in the previous study, the vehicle modeled was a 2010-model-year, full-sized GM pickup truck. The truck was selected because it is a high seller among light-duty vehicles (cars and trucks) in the U.S. market, and light-duty trucks account for a large proportion of the fuel used in the U.S. vehicle fleet. In our study, we attempted to estimate the energy use and emissions for the 2010-model-year truck fleet over its lifetime. To simplify this effort, we modeled the year 2016 - when the lifetime mileage midpoint for the truck will be reached.



Title:
The Debate on Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Fuel Ethanol

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/nesiqrgf

Content:




Title:
Updated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results of Fuel Ethanol

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
September 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/fn174xp1

Content:




Title:
Updated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Results of Fuel Ethanol

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
September 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:
The 15th International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/y015em1i

Content:
This paper summarizes key issues affecting WTW energy and emission results of corn and cellulosic ethanol. It is the first paper to discuss historical trends of key factors such as corn farming and ethanol production. It is also the first paper to present the energy balance of corn ethanol.



Title:
User Manual for Stochastic Simulations

Authors:
K. Subramanyan, U. Diwekar

Publication Date:
December 1, 2005

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ytsz6yov

Content:
This report documents the development of the stochastic simulation features in GREET 1.7. It also presents steps in the stochastic simulation features in GREET.



Title:
Well-to-Wheels Results of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Selected Vehicle/Fuel Systems (abstract)

Authors:
Y. Wu, M. Wang, P. Sharer, A. Rousseau

Publication Date:
April 3, 2006

Venue of Availability:
SAE 2006 Transactions (Journal of Engines), Paper No. 2006-01-0377 (2007)
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/bkdduogo

Content:
A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The new GREET version has up-todate information regarding energy use and emissions for fuel production activities and vehicle operations. In this study, a complete WTW evaluation targeting energy use, greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O), and typical criteria air pollutants (VOC, NOX, and PM10) includes the following fuel options-gasoline, diesel, and hydrogen; and the following vehicle technologies-spark-ignition engines with or without hybrid configurations, compression-ignition engines with hybrid configurations, and hydrogen fuel cells with hybrid configurations. Because the parametric assumptions in the GREET model involve uncertainties, we conducted stochastic simulations with GREET by establishing probability distribution functions for key input parameters (e.g., energy efficiencies, emission factors) regarding well-to-pump (WTP) activities and vehicle operations based on the detailed up-to-date data. We applied the Hammersley Sequence Sampling (HSS) technique for stochastic simulations in GREET to take into account the probability distributions of key input parameters, and produced the results in the form of a statistical distribution for a given energy or emission item. The WTW analysis shows that advanced vehicle/fuel systems achieve reductions in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions compared to baseline gasoline vehicles through 1) improved vehicle fuel economy, 2) reduced tailpipe/evaporative vehicle emissions, and/or 3) differences in fuel production pathways.



Title:
Vehicle-Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (abstract)

Authors:
P. Moon, A. Burnham, M. Wang

Publication Date:
April 3, 2006

Venue of Availability:
SAE 2006 World Congress, Paper No. 2006-01-0375 (2006)
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/hkjun004

Content:
A vehicle-cycle module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation. The vehicle-cycle module evaluates the energy and emission effects of vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. The addition of the vehicle-cycle module to the GREET model provides a comprehensive lifecycle-based approach to compare energy use and emissions of conventional vehicle technologies and advanced vehicle technologies such as hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. Using the newly developed vehicle-cycle module, this paper evaluates on a vehicle-cycle basis the energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected air pollutant emissions of a mid-size passenger car with the following powertrain systems - internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, and fuel cell with hybrid configuration. We found that the production of materials accounts for a majority of the vehicle-cycle energy use and emissions of all the vehicles examined. The energy use and greenhouse gas emissions increase for the advanced powertrain vehicles compared to the internal combustion engine vehicles, due to the use of energy-intensive materials in the fuel cell system of the fuel cell vehicle and the increased use of aluminum in both the hybrid electric vehicle and the fuel cell vehicle. In addition, the use of materials such as aluminum and carbon fiber composites increases the energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of lightweight vehicles. Furthermore, in order to put vehicle-cycle results into a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle GREET model is used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle module to estimate total energy-cycle results. Materials used to reduce the weight of a vehicle help improve fuel economy, and reduce the energy use and GHG emissions of the fuel-cycle and vehicle operation stages; however, production of lightweight materials is energy-intensive compared to production of conventional materials. However, when examining energy use and emissions on the total energy-cycle basis, our simulations show that in terms of reducing total energy use and emissions, there can be a significant net benefit from substituting lightweight materials.



Title:
Ethanol: The Complete Energy Life-Cycle Picture

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 2006

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ws3spx3q

Content:




Title:
Energy and Emission Benefits of Alternative Transportation Liquid Fuels Derived from Switchgrass: A Fuel Life Cycle Assessment (abstract)

Authors:
M. Wu, Y. Wu, M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 2006

Venue of Availability:
Biotechnology Progress, Volume 22: 1012-1024 (2006)
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/vo79javl

Content:
We conducted a mobility chains - or well-to-wheels (WTW) - analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015 to 2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SOx emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.



Title:
Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy (abstract)

Authors:
Y. Wu, M. Wang, A. Vyas, D. Wade, T. Taiwo

Publication Date:
August 1, 2006

Venue of Availability:
Nuclear Technologies 155: 92-207
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/rlrzhswg

Content:
A fuel-cycle model—called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model—has been developed to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The GREET model contains various hydrogen (H2) production pathways for fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) applications. In this study, the GREET model was expanded to include four nuclear H2 production pathways: (1) H2 production at refueling stations via electrolysis using light water reactor (LWR)-generated electricity; (2) H2 production in central plants via thermo-chemical water cracking using heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR); (3) H2 production in central plants via high-temperature electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity and steam; and (4) H2 production at refueling stations via electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity. The WTW analysis of these four options include these stages: uranium ore mining and milling; uranium yellowcake transportation; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; uranium fuel fabrication; uranium fuel transportation; electricity or H2 production in nuclear power plants; H2 transportation; H2 compression; and H2 FCVs operation. Our well-to-pump (WTP) results show that significant reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are achieved by nuclear-based H2 compared to natural gas-based H2 production via steam methane reforming for a unit of H2 delivered at refueling stations. When H2 is applied to FCVs, the WTW results also show large benefit in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions.



Title:
Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Wang, H. Huo

Publication Date:
November 1, 2006

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/2lli584z

Content:
This report documents development of pathways of producing ethanol from corn stover and forest residues in GREET. Corn stover-based ethanol is produced via biochemical conversion process based on NREL's bioconversion process simulation. Forest wood residue is a feedstock to produce multiple alcohols, ethanol, methanol, butanol, pantenol, etc., via a mixed alcohol process developed by NREL. This work is part of a DOE OBP funded 30x30 study. We re-examined fertilizer use (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and irrigation needs in the thirteen major corn-growing states, based on current USDA data. Net nitrogen requirement and N2O emissions as a result of corn stover harvest for cellulosic ethanol production was analyzed. As part of this effort, we conducted a life cycle assessment of energy use in farming machinery for the equipment used to farm corn. The assessment accounts for steel and rubber production, refining, parts production and assembly of the equipment. A historical comparison of farming machinery-embodied energy was presented. Through this effort, GREET was expanded to include the corn stover to ethanol pathway and the forest wood residue to ethanol pathway. In addition, a farming machinery embodied energy database was included in the ethanol pathway in GREET.



Title:
Development and Applications of GREET 2.7 - The Transportation Vehicle-Cycle Model

Authors:
A. Burnham, M. Wang, Y. Wu

Publication Date:
November 1, 2006

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/lkldbrwj

Content:
This report details the development and application of the GREET 2.7 model. The vehicle-cycle module in GREET evaluates the energy and emission effects associated with vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. With the addition of the vehicle-cycle module, the GREET model now provides a comprehensive, lifecycle-based approach to compare the energy use and emissions of conventional and advanced vehicle technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles). The current model includes six vehicle combinations consisting of a conventional material or lightweight material version of a mid-size passenger car with either an internal combustion engine, an internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, or a fuel cell with hybrid configuration. The model calculates the energy use and emissions that are required for vehicle component production; battery production; fluid production and use; and vehicle assembly, disposal, and recycling. This report also presents vehicle-cycle modeling results. In order to put these results in a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle model (GREET 1.7) was used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle model (GREET 2.7) to estimate total energy-cycle results.



Title:
Projection of Chinese Motor Vehicle Growth, Oil Demand, and CO2 Emissions through 2050

Authors:
M. Wang, H. Huo, L. Johnson, D. He

Publication Date:
December 1, 2006

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/rwdz78ca

Content:
In this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO2 emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected - separately - the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia).



Title:
Operating Manual for GREET: Version 1.7

Authors:
M. Wang, Y. Wu, A. Elgowainy

Publication Date:
November 1, 2005 revised on: February 1, 2007

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ycrv02rp

Content:
This is the operating manual of GREET 1.7. It lists the more than 100 fuel production pathways and 70 vehicle/fuel systems that are simulated and describes the content each of the 27 individual working sheets in this version. It also explains to users the new GREET simulation features and simulations steps.



Title:
Life-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Different Corn Ethanol Plant Types

Authors:
M. Wang, M. Wu, H. Huo

Publication Date:
May 22, 2007

Venue of Availability:
Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 2 (2007), 024001
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/zgd4vecz

Content:
This paper documents key assumptions of corn ethanol plant energy use by process fuel types. We examine nine corn ethanol plant types categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distillers grains and solubles. Process fuels in corn ethanol plants include natural gas, coal, wet DGS, and wood chips. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly - from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel, to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. As a result, the GREET model was expanded to include these process fuels for corn ethanol plants.



Title:
Potential Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Effects of Hydrogen Production from Coke Oven Gas in U.S. Steel Mills (abstract)

Authors:
F. Joseck, M. Wang, Y. Wu

Publication Date:
October 1, 2007

Venue of Availability:
International Journal of Hydrogen, 33, 1445 - 1454
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/koec42fk

Content:
For this study, we examined the energy and emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG) on a well-to-wheels basis and compared these effects with those of other hydrogen production options, as well as with those of conventional gasoline and diesel options. We then estimated the magnitude of hydrogen production from COG in the United States and the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that could potentially be fueled with the hydrogen produced from COG. Our analysis shows that this production pathway can achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. This pathway is especially worth considering because first, the sources of COG are concentrated in the upper Midwest and in the Northeast United States, which would facilitate relatively cost-effective collection, transportation, and distribution of the produced hydrogen to refueling stations in these regions. Second, the amount of hydrogen that could be produced may fuel about 1.7 million cars, thus providing a vital near-term hydrogen production option for FCV applications.



Title:
Life-Cycle Assessment of Corn-Based Butanol as a Potential Transportation Fuel

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Wang, J. Liu, H. Huo

Publication Date:
November 1, 2007

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/4i3trvf0

Content:
This report documents the development and simulation of corn-based butanol through advanced ABE (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) fermentation. The production pathway produces bio-butanol as a fuel blend, large quantity of co-product bio-acetone, and small amount of bio-ethanol. First, a process simulation for corn-based butanol production was conducted using ASPEN Plus. The simulation was partly based on USDA's corn ethanol dry-mill process model for the process steps prior to fermentation. The upstream production process steps were integrated into ABE fermentation and downstream processing for products separation, which was simulated using the most recent literature values. Results from the ASPEN model served as inputs to estimate life cycle energy use and associated emissions. The report also presents a WTW bio-butanol used in LDV and a cradle-to-gate analysis of bio-acetone. Results from this effort were incorporated into GREET for the corn butanol pathway and corn ethanol pathway.



Title:
Stochastic Tool Loading Instructions

Authors:
A. Elgowainy

Publication Date:
February 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/he5am4um

Content:




Title:
Estimation of Energy Efficiencies of U.S. Petroleum Refineries

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
March 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/hl9mw9i7

Content:
This document details petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006.



Title:
Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Effects of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels

Authors:
H. Huo, M. Wang, C. Bloyd, V. Putsche

Publication Date:
March 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/e5b5zeb7

Content:
This report documents development of soybean-based renewable diesel and renewable gasoline pathways and update of soybean-based biodiesel pathways in GREET 1.8. We assessed the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of three soybean-derived fuels by expanding, updating, and using the GREET model including biodiesel produced from soy oil transesterification; renewable diesel produced from hydrogenation of soy oil by using two processes (renewable diesel I and II); and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking of soy oil. We used four allocation approaches to address the co-products: a displacement approach; two allocation methods, one based on energy value and one based on market value; and a hybrid approach that integrates both the displacement and allocation methods. Each of the four allocation approaches generates different results.



Title:
Argonne and DOE respond to the February 7 article in Sciencexpress, Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land Use Change

Authors:
M. Wang, Z. Haq

Publication Date:
March 14, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/z3ko5q7x

Content:




Title:
Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission Implications of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Simulated with the GREET Model (abstract)

Authors:
M. Wang, M. Wu, H. Huo, J. Liu

Publication Date:
August 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:
International Sugar Journal 2008, Vol. 110, No. 1317
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/hjk5cxlv

Content:
By using data available in the open literature, we expanded the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne National Laboratory to include Brazilian-grown sugarcane ethanol. With the expanded GREET model, we examined the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sugarcane-derived ethanol produced in Brazil and used to fuel light-duty vehicles in the United States. Results for sugarcane ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline. The sugarcane-to-ethanol pathway evaluated in the GREET model comprises fertilizer production, sugarcane farming, sugarcane transportation, and sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil; ethanol transportation to U.S. ports and then to U.S. refueling stations; and ethanol use in vehicles. Our analysis shows that sugarcane ethanol can reduce GHG emissions by 78% and fossil energy use by 97%, relative to petroleum gasoline. The large reductions can be attributed to use of bagasse in sugarcane mills, among other factors. To address the uncertainties involved in key input parameters, we developed and examined several sensitivity cases to test the effect of key parameters on WTW results for sugarcane ethanol. Of the total GHG emissions associated with sugarcane ethanol, the five major contributors are open-field burning of sugarcane tops and leaves, N2O emissions from sugarcane fields, fertilizer production, sugarcane mill operation, and sugarcane farming. Brazil is going to phase out open-field burning in the future. This action will certainly help further reduce GHG emissions of sugarcane farming, together with reductions in emissions of criteria pollutants such as Nox and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 microns. The eventual elimination of open-field burning in sugarcane plantations will result in additional GHG emission reductions by sugarcane ethanol of up to 9 percentage points.



Title:
Update of Distillers Grains Displacement Ratios for Corn Ethanol Life-Cycle Analysis

Authors:
S. Arora, M. Wu, M. Wang

Publication Date:
September 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/3bi0z09m

Content:
This report details the effort in updating the displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol co-products used in the animal feed industry for use in the GREET model. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol co-products including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds. Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following co-products: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these co-products, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea.



Title:
Assessment of Potential Life-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Effects from Using Corn-Based Butanol as a Transportation Fuel (abstract)

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Wang, J. Liu, H. Huo

Publication Date:
September 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:
Biotechnology Progress, Volume 24: 1204-1214 (2008)
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/o5j5z7yi

Content:
Since advances in the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation process in recent years have led to significant increases in its productivity and yields, the production of butanol and its use in motor vehicles have become an option worth evaluating. This study estimates the potential lifecycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. It employs a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis tool: the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The estimates of life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are based on an Aspen PlusVVR simulation for a corn-to-butanol production process, which describes grain processing, fermentation, and product separation. Bio-butanol-related WTW activities include corn farming, corn transportation, butanol production, butanol transportation, and vehicle operation. In this study, we also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. Our study shows that driving vehicles fueled with corn-based butanol produced by the current ABE fermentation process could result in substantial fossil energy savings (39%-56%) and avoid large percentage of the GHG emission burden, yielding a 32%-48% reduction relative to using conventional gasoline. On energy basis, a bushel of corn produces less liquid fuel from the ABE process than that from the corn ethanol dry mill process. The coproduction of a significant portion of acetone from the current ABE fermentation presents a challenge. A market analysis of acetone, as well as research and development on robust alternative technologies and processes that minimize acetone while increase the butanol yield, should be conducted.



Title:
Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems

Authors:
L. Gaines, A. Elgowainy, M. Wang

Publication Date:
October 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/oh77n5k5

Content:
This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne GREET model are used to estimate full fuelcycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.



Title:
Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

Authors:
A. Elgowainy, M. Wang

Publication Date:
November 1, 2008

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/l4gwiacu

Content:
The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.



Title:
Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Authors:
A. Elgowainy, A. Burnham, M. Wang, J. Molburg, A. Rousseau

Publication Date:
February 1, 2009

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/372dv49w

Content:
This report examines the well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis incorporated fuel economy results from the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit for PHEV and marginal electricity generation mixes from the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch Model. The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled share. GREET 1.8c.0 incorporates these changes for the simulation of PHEVs.



Title:
Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline (abstract)

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Mintz, M. Wang, S. Arora

Publication Date:
March 1, 2009

Venue of Availability:
Environmental Management, Volume 44: 981-997 (2009)
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ebqyv6y5

Content:
We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.



Title:
Modeling Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of CNG and LNG Produced from Landfill Gas, AF+V National Conference

Authors:
M. Mintz

Publication Date:
April 1, 2009

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/mtqri71u

Content:




Title:
Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Biofuels and Plug-In Hybrids

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 1, 2009

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/psj0nabb1

Content:




Title:
Simulation of the Process for Producing Butanol from Corn Fermentation (abstract)

Authors:
J. Liu, M. Wu, M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 5, 2009

Venue of Availability:
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research Journal 2009, Vol. 48, 5551-5557
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/pn8d524r

Content:
This study focuses on the simulation of a complete process for producing butanol via acetone, butanol, and ethanol corn fermentation. The simulation, which begins with grain processing and proceeds through product purification, represents the first attempt to simulate such a complete process. Energy use for the production process is highlighted and compared to that for the conventional corn ethanol process. The simulation results are utilized in a lifecycle assessment for butanol as a potential transportation fuel. The lifecycle assessment study is conducted using the transportation full lifecycle assessment model, Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET), that has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory. A variety of key parameters are examined, such as the state of the art of the unit operations included in the process and their key process parameters, as well as their effects on the total energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the lifecycle of butanol.



Title:
What's Your Carbon Footprint?

Authors:
A. Burnham, M. Vilim, A. Elgowainy

Publication Date:
September 1, 2009

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/nvedvh25

Content:




Title:
Water Is Key to Sustainability of Energy Production

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Mintz, M. Wang, S. Arora, and J. Peng

Publication Date:
September 1, 2009

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/61nj711t

Content:




Title:
Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Landfill Gas-Based Pathways and Their Addition to the GREET Model

Authors:
M. Mintz, J. Han, M. Wang, C. Saricks

Publication Date:
May 1, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/xkdaqgyk0

Content:
This report discusses the size and scope of biomethane resources from landfills and the pathways by which those resources can be turned into and utilized as vehicle fuel. It includes characterizations of the LFG stream and the processes used to convert low-Btu LFG into high-Btu renewable natural gas (RNG); documents the conversion efficiencies and losses of those processes, the choice of processes modeled in GREET, and other assumptions used to construct GREET pathways; and presents GREET results by pathway stage. GREET estimates of well-to-pump (WTP), pump-to-wheel (PTW), and WTW energy, fossil fuel, and GHG emissions for each LFG-based pathway are then summarized and compared with similar estimates for fossil natural gas and petroleum pathways.



Title:
Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Authors:
A. Elgowainy, J. Han, L. Poch, M. Wang, A. Vyas, M. Mahalik, A. Rousseau

Publication Date:
June 1, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/xkdaqgyk

Content:
For this WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the GREET model to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. They estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using Argonne's Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. They calculated the equivalent "on-road" (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. They employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the United States. Argonne also evaluated the U.S. average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on the WTW results.



Title:
Land Use Changes and Consequent CO2 Emissions due to US Corn Ethanol Production: A Comprehensive Analysis

Authors:
W. Tyner, F. Taheripour, Q. Zhuang, D. Birur, U. Baldos

Publication Date:
July 1, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/8vdox40k

Content:
The basic objective of this research was to estimate land use changes associated with US corn ethanol production up to the 15 billion gallon Renewable Fuel Standard level implied by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We also used the estimated land use changes to calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the corn ethanol production. The results of this research were adapted to the GREET model.



Title:
Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems

Authors:
J. Sullivan, C. Clark, J. Han, M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 1, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/geothermal_and_other_power

Content:
A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other lifecycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.



Title:
Energy-Consumption and Carbon-Emission Analysis of Vehicle and Component Manufacturing

Authors:
J. Sullivan, A. Burnham, M. Wang

Publication Date:
September 1, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/vehicle_and_components_manufacturing

Content:
A model is presented for calculating the environmental burdens of the part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (VMA) stage of the vehicle life cycle. The approach is bottom-up, with a special focus on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is applied to both conventional and advanced vehicles, the latter of which include aluminum-intensive, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles.



Title:
GREET Brochure

Authors:
M. Wang

Publication Date:
September 6, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/nveasddvh25

Content:




Title:
A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis: State of Knowledge and Critical Needs

Authors:
J. Sullivan, L. Gaines

Publication Date:
October 1, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/batteries_lca

Content:
A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, life-cycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.



Title:
User Guide for the GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator 1.1

Authors:
A. Burnham

Publication Date:
June 1, 2009 revised on: December 3, 2010

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/4elg4zj7

Content:
This user guide documents the GREET Fleet Footprint Calculator, which can be used to measure the petroleum displacement and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles and off-road equipment.



Title:
Assessment of Fuel-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Fischer-Tropsch Diesel from Coal and Cellulosic Biomass

Authors:
Xiaomin Xie, Michael Wang, and Jeongwoo Han

Publication Date:
March 1, 2011

Venue of Availability:
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es1017703
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ftd-coal-biomass

Content:
This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer−Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.



Title:
Developing a Tool to Estimate Water Use in Electric Power Generation in the United States

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Peng

Publication Date:
December 22, 2010 revised on: July 29, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/watertool

Content:
A spreadsheet-based tool has been developed to characterize water use in electricity generation from nonrenewable and renewable sources for the 50 states in the United States. The tool is built upon a data inventory that analyzes water requirements by fuel source, generation technology, and cooling system. A total of 13 fuel sources and their 19 subcategories and eight electricity generation technologies are included in the inventory. It also incorporates four types of cooling systems: for each type, water withdrawal and consumption factors were determined. The data inventory and the tool cover the 50 states in the nation which enable users to generate scenarios at national level and for individual state. As such, the tool allows decision makers to perform quick estimates of water consumption in electricity generation. It enables the projection of future water use in electricity generation from various fuel sources at state and national levels. Further analysis can be conducted to examine how changes in fuel source mix and cooling system mix impact water use. Decision makers can use the tool to compare options among fuel sources and technologies from the perspective of impacts to water use (i.e., withdrawal and consumption), to evaluate the conservation of water resources associated with renewable sources, and to address environmental sustainability issues in renewable energy development



Title:
GTAP Cellulosic Biofuels Analysis of Land Use Changes

Authors:
F. Taheripour, W. Tyner, M. Wang

Publication Date:
August 23, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/luc_ethanol

Content:




Title:
Waste-to-Wheel Analysis of Anaerobic-Digestion-Based Renewable Natural Gas Pathways with the GREET Model

Authors:
J. Han, M. Mintz, M.Q Wang

Publication Date:
September 1, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/waste-to-wheel-analysis

Content:
In 2009, manure management accounted for 2,356 Gg or 107 billion standard cubic ft of methane (CH4) emissions in the United States, equivalent to 0.5% of U.S. natural gas (NG) consumption. Owing to the high global warming potential of methane, capturing and utilizing this methane source could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The extent of that reduction depends on several factors—most notably, how much of this manure-based methane can be captured, how much GHG is produced in the course of converting it to vehicular fuel, and how much GHG was produced by the fossil fuel it might displace. A life-cycle analysis was conducted to quantify these factors and, in so doing, assess the impact of converting methane from animal manure into renewable NG (RNG) and utilizing the gas in vehicles. Several manure-based RNG pathways were characterized in the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model, and their fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions were compared to petroleum-based pathways as well as to conventional fossil NG pathways. Results show that despite increased total energy use, both fossil fuel use and GHG emissions decline for most RNG pathways as compared with fossil NG and petroleum. However, GHG emissions for RNG pathways are highly dependent on the specifics of the reference case, as well as on the process energy emissions and methane conversion factors assumed for the RNG pathways. The most critical factors are the share of flared controllable CH4 and the quantity of CH4 lost during NG extraction in the reference case, the magnitude of N2O lost in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process and in AD residue, and the amount of carbon sequestered in AD residue. In many cases, data for these parameters are limited and uncertain. Therefore, more research is needed to gain a better understanding of the range and magnitude of environmental benefits from converting animal manure to RNG via AD.



Title:
Life-Cycle Analysis of Algal Lipid Fuels with the GREET Model

Authors:
E.D. Frank, J. Han, I, Palou-Rivera, A. Elgowainy, M.Q. Wang

Publication Date:
September 20, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/algal-lipid-fuels

Content:




Title:
Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

Authors:
C.E. Clark, C.B Harto, W.A. Troppe

Publication Date:
October 1, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/water-use-pressurized-geothermal

Content:




Title:
Updated Sugarcane and Switchgrass Parameters in the GREET Model

Authors:
J. B. Dunn, J. Eason, M Q. Wang

Publication Date:
October 10, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/updated_sugarcane_switchgrass_params

Content:
The feedstock from which a biofuel derives can have a significant effect on its life-cycle energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The aim of this document is to describe our approach to developing GREET parameters for key facets of sugarcane and switchgrass feedstocks that affect their life-cycle air emissions and energy consumption from the field (including the upstream energy to manufacture agricultural inputs such as fertilizer) to the conversion facility gate in the case of switchgrass. For sugarcane ethanol, we also revise aspects of the fuel's life cycle pertaining to the conversion facility including ethanol yield and embodied energy in the sugarcane mill buildings and equipment. A summary of data sources for corn stover and forest residue are provided elsewhere (Han et al. 2011). Note that although this document discusses switchgrass in the context of ethanol production, this crop could also be a feed to a process that directly produces hydrocarbon fuels, such as fast pyrolysis.



Title:
User Manual for Algae Life-Cycle Analysis with GREET

Authors:
E.D. Frank, J. Han, I, Palou-Rivera, A. Elgowainy, M.Q. Wang

Publication Date:
October 19, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/algae-life-cycle-manual

Content:




Title:
Updated Estimation of Energy Efficiencies of U.S. Petroleum Refineries

Authors:
I. Palou-Rivera, J. Han, M. Wang

Publication Date:
July 1, 2010 revised on: November 2, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/petroleum

Content:
Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.



Title:
Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Natural Gas, Coal, and Petroleum

Authors:
Andrew Burnham, Jeongwoo Han, Corrie E. Clark, Michael Wang, Jennifer B. Dunn, Ignasi Palou-Rivera

Publication Date:
November 22, 2011

Venue of Availability:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es201942m
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/GHGs-Shale-NG-Coal-Petroleum

Content:
The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during the natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. Keywords: life cycle analysis, greenhouse gas emissions, shale gas, natural gas, coal, petroleum



Title:
Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis Pathways with GREET

Authors:
J.Han, A.Elgowainy, I. Palou-Rivera, J.B. Dunn, M.Q. Wang

Publication Date:
November 27, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/wtw_fast_pyrolysis

Content:
The pyrolysis of biomass can help produce liquid transportation fuels with properties similar to those of petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel. Argonne National Laboratory conducted a life-cycle (i.e., well-to-wheels [WTW]) analysis of various pyrolysis pathways by expanding and employing the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The WTW energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pyrolysis pathways were compared with those from the baseline petroleum gasoline and diesel pathways. Various pyrolysis pathway scenarios with a wide variety of possible hydrogen sources, liquid fuel yields, and co-product application and treatment methods were considered. At one extreme, when hydrogen is produced from natural gas and when bio-char is used for process energy needs, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is high (32% of the dry mass of biomass input). The reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used, however, is modest, at 50% and 51%, respectively, on a per unit of fuel energy basis. At the other extreme, when hydrogen is produced internally via reforming of pyrolysis oil and when bio-char is sequestered in soil applications, the pyrolysis-based liquid fuel yield is low (15% of the dry mass of biomass input), but the reductions in WTW fossil energy use and GHG emissions are large, at 79% and 96%, respectively, relative to those that occur when baseline petroleum fuels are used. The petroleum energy use in all scenarios was restricted to biomass collection and transportation activities, which resulted in a reduction in WTW petroleum energy use of 92-95% relative to that found when baseline petroleum fuels are used. Internal hydrogen production (i.e., via reforming of pyrolysis oil) significantly reduces fossil fuel use and GHG emissions because the hydrogen from fuel gas or pyrolysis oil (renewable sources) displaces that from fossil fuel natural gas and the amount of fossil natural gas used for hydrogen production is reduced; however, internal hydrogen production also reduces the potential petroleum energy savings (per unit of biomass input basis) because the fuel yield declines dramatically. Typically, a process that has a greater liquid fuel yield results in larger petroleum savings per unit of biomass input but a smaller reduction in life-cycle GHG emissions. Sequestration of the large amount of bio-char co-product (e.g., in soil applications) provides a significant carbon dioxide credit, while electricity generation from bio-char combustion provides a large energy credit. The WTW energy and GHG emissions benefits observed when a pyrolysis oil refinery was integrated with a pyrolysis reactor were small when compared with those that occur when pyrolysis oil is distributed to a distant refinery, since the activities associated with transporting the oil between the pyrolysis reactors and refineries have a smaller energy and emissions footprint than do other activities in the pyrolysis pathway.



Title:
Life-Cycle Analysis Results for Geothermal Systems in Comparaison to Other Power Systems Part II

Authors:
J.L Sullivan, C.E. Clark, L. Yuan, J. Han, M. Wang

Publication Date:
December 1, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/lca-goethermal

Content:




Title:
Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale gas and Natural Gas

Authors:
C. Clark, J.Han, A. Burnham, J.B. Dunn, M.Q. Wang

Publication Date:
December 31, 2011

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/shale_gas

Content:
The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps — such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings — that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.



Title:
Assessing Regional Hydrology and Water Quality Implications of Large-Scale Biofuel Feedstock Production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

Authors:
Y. Demissie, E. Yan, M. Wu.

Publication Date:
January 1, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es300769k
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/regional-hydrology-mississippi

Content:
Environmental Science and Technology, 46: 9174-9182



Title:
Simulated impact of future biofuel production on water quality and water cycle dynamics in the Upper Mississippi river basin

Authors:
M. Wu, Y. Demissie and E. Yan

Publication Date:
January 1, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953412000402
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/biofuel-mississippi

Content:
Biomass and Bioenergy 41 (2012):44-56



Title:
Quantifying the regional water footprint of biofuel production by incorporating hydrologic modeling

Authors:
M. Wu, Y.-W. Chiu and Y. Demissie

Publication Date:
January 1, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011WR011809
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/water-regional-biofuels

Content:
Water Resources Research 48 (10): W10518



Title:
Assessing county-level water footprints of different cellulosic-biofuel feedstock pathways

Authors:
Y. W. Chiu and M. Wu

Publication Date:
January 1, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es3002162
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/water-country-biofuel

Content:
Environmental Science and Technology 46 (16): 9155-9162



Title:
Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels

Authors:
E.D. Frank, J. Han, I. Palou-Rivera, A. Elgowainy, M.Q. Wang

Publication Date:
March 13, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/7/1/014030/
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ch4-nox-algal-biofuels

Content:




Title:
Updated Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Factors and Their Probability Distribution Functions for Electric Generating Units

Authors:
H. Cai, M. Wang, A. Elgowainy, J. Han

Publication Date:
May 1, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/updated-elec-emissions

Content:




Title:
Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End of Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium Ion Battery Life Cycle

Authors:
J.B. Dunn, L. Gaines, M. Barnes, J. Sullivan and M. Wang

Publication Date:
June 11, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/lib-lca

Content:
This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn2O4 as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.



Title:
Life cycle comparison of hydrothermal liquefaction and lipid extraction pathways to renewable diesel from algae

Authors:
Edward D. Frank, Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han, Zhichao Wang

Publication Date:
June 12, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/m320v08k21v50861/fulltext.pdf
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/hydro-lipid-comparaison

Content:
Algae biomass is an attractive biofuel feedstock when grown with high productivity on marginal land. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) produces more oil from algae than lipid extraction (LE) does because protein and carbohydrates are converted, in part, to oil. Since nitrogen in the algae biomass is incorporated into the HTL oil, and since lipid extracted algae for generating heat and electricity are not co-produced by HTL, there are questions regarding implications for emissions and energy use. We studied the HTL and LE pathways for renewable diesel (RD) production by modeling all essential operations from nutrient manufacturing through fuel use. Our objective was to identify the key relationships affecting HTL energy consumption and emissions. LE, with identical upstream growth model and consistent hydroprocessing model, served as reference. HTL used 1.8 fold less algae than did LE but required 5.2 times more ammonia when nitrogen incorporated in the HTL oil was treated as lost. HTL RD had life cycle emissions of 31,000 gCO2 equivalent (gCO2e) compared to 21,500 gCO2e for LE based RD per million BTU of RD produced. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased when yields exceeded 0.4 g HTL oil/g algae because insufficient carbon was left for biogas generation. Key variables in the analysis were the HTL oil yield, the hydrogen demand during upgrading, and the nitrogen content of the HTL oil. Future work requires better data for upgrading renewable oils to RD and requires consideration of nitrogen recycling during upgrading



Title:
Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

Authors:
Ryan Davis , Daniel Fishman , Edward D. Frank , Mark S. Wigmosta ,Andy Aden , Andre M. Coleman , Philip T. Pienkos , Richard J. Skaggs, Erik R. Venteris, Michael Q. Wang

Publication Date:
June 12, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/algae-harmonization-2012

Content:
The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program’s national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.



Title:
Life Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

Authors:
A. Elgowainy, J. Han, M. Wang, N. Carter, R. Stratton, J. Hileman, A. Malwitz, S. Balasubramanian

Publication Date:
June 30, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/aviation-lca

Content:




Title:
Updated Vehicle Specifications in the GREET Vehicle-Cycle Model

Authors:
A. Burnham

Publication Date:
July 30, 2012 revised on: July 30, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/update-veh-specs

Content:
Alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies are being promoted to help reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and the United States dependence on imported oil. To more accurately and completely evaluate the energy and emissions effects of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, researchers should consider emissions and energy use from vehicle operations, fuel production processes, and vehicle production processes. This research area is especially important for technologies that employ fuels and materials with distinctly different primary energy sources and production processes, i.e., those for which upstream emissions and energy use can be significantly different. The GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model was originally developed to evaluate fuel-cycle (or well-to-wheels) energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies (Wang 1999). In 2006, the GREET vehicle-cycle model was released to examine energy use and emissions of vehicle production and disposal processes (Burnham et al. 2006). This document updates the key vehicle specifications in Burnham et al. (2006) for the latest publically available version, GREET2_2012, of the vehicle-cycle model. In addition to the parameters described in this document, GREET2_2012 includes updated data on production and recycling of lithium-ion batteries, material production of several key vehicle materials, and part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (Dunn et al. 2012; Keoleian et al. 2012; Sullivan et al. 2010).



Title:
Life Cycle Material Data Update for GREET Model

Authors:
G. Keoleian, S. Miller, R. De Kleine, A. Fang, J. Mosley

Publication Date:
July 9, 2012 revised on: July 30, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/greet2-lca-update

Content:




Title:
The Impact of Recycling on Cradle-to-Gate Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors:
Jennifer B. Dunn, Linda Gaines, John Sullivan, and Michael Q. Wang

Publication Date:
October 17, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021%2Fes302420z
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/recycling-batteries

Content:
This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases [GHGs]) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn2O4 cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn2O4, aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO2e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn2O4, aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%.



Title:
Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from enzyme and yeast manufacture for corn and cellulosic ethanol production

Authors:
Jennifer B. Dunn, Steffen Mueller, Michael Wang and Jeongwoo Han

Publication Date:
October 20, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/y580l882u044t120/
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/enzyme-yeast

Content:
Enzymes and yeast are important ingredients in the production of ethanol, yet the energy consumption and emissions ssociated with their production are often excluded from life-cycle analyses of ethanol. We provide new estimates for the energy consumed and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted during enzyme and yeast manufacture, including contributions from key ingredients such as starch, glucose, and molasses. We incorporated these data into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model and observed that enzymes and yeast together contribute 1.4 and 27 % of farm-to-pump GHG emissions for corn and cellulosic ethanol, respectively. Over the course of the entire corn ethanol life cycle, yeast and enzymes contribute a negligible amount of GHG emissions, but increase GHG emissions from the cellulosic ethanol life cycle by 5.6 g CO2e/MJ.



Title:
Geothermal Life-Cycle Assessment - Part 3

Authors:
J.L Sullivan, C.E. Clark, L. Yuan, J. Han, M. Wang

Publication Date:
November 1, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/lca-goethermal-III

Content:




Title:
Consumptive Water Use in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

Authors:
M. Wu, M. Mintz, M. Wang, S. Arora, Y. Chiu

Publication Date:
January 1, 2009 revised on: November 8, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/consumptive-water

Content:
This report (updated in 2011 to include 2008 USDA FRIS irrigation survey results and 2008 crop production data, new ethanol yield, and co-product water allocation) examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, "consumptive water use" is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.



Title:
Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

Authors:
Michael Wang, Jeongwoo Han, Jennifer B Dunn, Hao Cai and Amgad Elgowainy

Publication Date:
December 13, 2012

Venue of Availability:
http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/7/4/045905
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/wtw-ethanol-2012

Content:
Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19-48%, 40-62%, 90-103%, 77-97% and 101-115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways.



Title:
Updated Sugarcane Parameters in GREET1_2012, Second Revision

Authors:
Jeongwoo Han, Jennifer B. Dunn, Hao Cai, Amgad Elgowainy and Michael Q. Wang

Publication Date:
December 21, 2012

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/greet-updated-sugarcane

Content:




Title:
Investigation of biochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional bale system and advanced uniform biomass logistics designs

Authors:
A. M. Argo, E. C. D. Tan, D. Inman, M. H. Langholtz, L. M. Eaton, J. J. Jacobson, C. T. Wright, D. J. Muth, M. M. Wu, Y.-W. Chiu and R. L. Graham

Publication Date:
January 1, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1391
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/biochem-bioref

Content:
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 7 (3): 282–302



Title:
Considering water availability and wastewater resources in the development of algal bio-oil

Authors:
Y.-W. Chiu and M. Wu

Publication Date:
January 1, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1397
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/water-algal-bio-oil

Content:
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 7 (4): 406-415



Title:
The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process

Authors:
Y.-W. Chiu and M. Wu,

Publication Date:
January 1, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://stacks.iop.org/1748-9326/8/i=3/a=035015
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/water-forest-residue

Content:
Environmental Research Letters 8 (3): 035015



Title:
Modeling state-level soil carbon emission factors under various scenarios for direct land use change associated with United States biofuel feedstock production

Authors:
H Kwon, S Mueller, JB Dunn, M Wander

Publication Date:
March 1, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953413000950
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/state-soil-carbon

Content:
Current estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels produced in the US can be improved by refining soil C emission factors (EF; C emissions per land area per year) for direct land use change associated with different biofuel feedstock scenarios. We developed a modeling framework to estimate these EFs at the state-level by utilizing remote sensing data, national statistics databases, and a surrogate model for CENTURY's soil organic C dynamics submodel (SCSOC). We estimated the forward change in soil C concentration within the 0–30 cm depth and computed the associated EFs for the 2011 to 2040 period for croplands, grasslands or pasture/hay, croplands/conservation reserve, and forests that were suited to produce any of four possible biofuel feedstock systems [corn (Zea Mays L)-corn, corn–corn with stover harvest, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter)]. Our results predict smaller losses or even modest gains in sequestration for corn based systems, particularly on existing croplands, than previous efforts and support assertions that production of perennial grasses will lead to negative emissions in most situations and that conversion of forest or established grasslands to biofuel production would likely produce net emissions. The proposed framework and use of the SCSOC provide transparency and relative simplicity that permit users to easily modify model inputs to inform biofuel feedstock production targets set forth by policy.



Title:
Energy consumption during the manufacture of nutrients for algae cultivation

Authors:
Michael C. Johnson, Ignasi Palou-Rivera, Edward D. Frank

Publication Date:
August 19, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/johnson-nutrients

Content:
The effect of nutrient production on life cycle analysis (LCA) of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for algal biofuels can be significant, yet recent algal biofuel LCAs vary significantly in their estimates for contributions from fertilizer production. Given the uncertainty in emissions associated with fertilizer manufacturing and the possibility that they play a significant role in algae LCA, this report examined nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer production in the U.S. byway of a detailed examination and analysis of published data.We found that the energy use and emissions of algae fertilizers derive fromthe manufacturing of just a fewkey reagents, namely ammonia and phosphoric acid. Under the assumption that large-scale algae growth will utilize commodity chemicals, the life cycle inventory centers on a few processes. We report relatively consistent values in the literature for these processes, suggest representative values to use in future LCA work, and discuss proper handling of fossil carbon in urea



Title:
Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Manual

Authors:
J. B. Dunn, S. Mueller, H. Kwon, M. Wander, M. Wang

Publication Date:
May 30, 2012 revised on: October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/cclub-manual

Content:




Title:
Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cellulosic Feedstocks for Biofuels for GREET1_2013

Authors:
Zhichao Wang, Jennifer B. Dunn, Jeongwoo Han, and Michael Q. Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/feedstocks-13

Content:




Title:
Greet 2013 Manual

Authors:
Argonne National Laboratory

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/greet-manual

Content:




Title:
Greet 2013 Model

Authors:
Argonne National Laboratory

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/greet-model

Content:




Title:
Update to Transportation Parameters in GREET

Authors:
Jennifer B. Dunn, Amgad Elgowainy, Anant Vyas, Pu Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/tansportation-distribution-13

Content:




Title:
Updated Emission Factors of Air Pollutants from Vehicle Operations in GREET Using MOVES

Authors:
Hao Cai, Andrew Burnham, Michael Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/vehicles-13

Content:




Title:
Analysis of Petroleum Refining Energy Efficiency of U.S. Refineries

Authors:
Hao Cai, Jeongwoo Han, Grant Forman, Vince Divita, Amgad Elgowainy, Michael Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/petroleum-eff-13

Content:




Title:
Development of Tallow-based Biodiesel Pathway in GREET

Authors:
Jeongwoo Han, Amgad Elgowainy, and Michael Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/tallow-13

Content:




Title:
Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

Authors:
Hao Cai, Jennifer B Dunn, Zhichao Wang, Jeongwoo Han and Michael Q Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-6-141
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/sorghum-13

Content:
Background: The availability of feedstock options is a key to meeting the volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels per year beginning in 2022, as required in the US 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sorghum-based ethanol need to be assessed for sorghum to play a role in meeting that requirement.



Title:
Updated Fugitive Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Natural Gas Pathways in the GREET

Authors:
A. Burnham, J. Han, A. Elgowainy, and M. Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/ch4-updates-13

Content:




Title:
Updated Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Factors of the U.S. Electric Generating Units in 2010

Authors:
Hao Cai, Michael Wang, Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/electricity-13

Content:




Title:
Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional and Alternative Marine Fuels in GREET

Authors:
Felix Adom, Jennifer B. Dunn, Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/marine-fuels-13

Content:




Title:
Updates to Parameters of Hydrogen Production Pathways in GREET

Authors:
Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han, and Hao Zhu

Publication Date:
October 25, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/h2-13

Content:




Title:
AFLEET Tool

Authors:
A. Burnham

Publication Date:
October 28, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/afleet-manual

Content:




Title:
Effects of co-produced biochar on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of pyrolysis-derived renewable fuels

Authors:
Zhichao Wang, Jennifer B. Dunn, Jeongwoo Han and Michael Q. Wang

Publication Date:
November 1, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bbb.1447/abstract
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/biochar-pyrolysis-2013

Content:




Title:
Analysis of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Exports in Missouri River Basin by Application of SWAT Model

Authors:
Zhonglong Zhang, May Wu

Publication Date:
November 1, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/morb-swat

Content:




Title:
Investigating Grey Water Footprint for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis

Authors:
May Wu

Publication Date:
November 22, 2013

Venue of Availability:

http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/grey-water-footprint

Content:




Title:
A Spatial Modeling Framework to Evaluate Domestic Biofuel-Induced Potential Land Use Changes and Emissions

Authors:
Joshua Elliott, Bhavna Sharma, Neil Best, Michael Glotter, Jennifer B. Dunn, Ian Foster, Fernando Miguez, Steffen Mueller, and Michael Wang

Publication Date:
December 8, 2013

Venue of Availability:
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es404546r
http://greet.es.anl.gov/files/domestic-luc

Content:
We present a novel bottom-up approach to estimate biofuel-induced land-use change (LUC) and resulting CO2 emissions in the U.S. from 2010 to 2022, based on a consistent methodology across four essential components: land availability, land suitability, LUC decision-making, and induced CO2 emissions. Using high-resolution geospatial data and modeling, we construct probabilistic assessments of county-, state-, and national-level LUC and emissions for macroeconomic scenarios. We use the Cropland Data Layer and the Protected Areas Database to characterize availability of land for biofuel crop cultivation, and the CERES-Maize and BioCro biophysical crop growth models to estimate the suitability (yield potential) of available lands for biofuel crops. For LUC decisionmaking, we use a county-level stochastic partial-equilibrium modeling framework and consider five scenarios involving annual ethanol production scaling to 15, 22, and 29 BG, respectively, in 2022, with corn providing feedstock for the first 15 BG and the remainder coming from one of two dedicated energy crops. Finally, we derive high-resolution above-ground carbon factors from the National Biomass and Carbon Data set to estimate emissions from each LUC pathway. Based on these inputs, we obtain estimates for average total LUC emissions of 6.1, 2.2, 1.0, 2.2, and 2.4 gCO2e/MJ for Corn-15 Billion gallons (BG), Miscanthus × giganteus (MxG)-7 BG, Switchgrass (SG)-7 BG, MxG-14 BG, and SG-14 BG scenarios, respectively