Publication Details

Title : Addition of nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA) cathode material to GREET2
Publication Date : October 04, 2016
Authors : P. T. Benavides, Q. Dai, J. Kelly, J. B. Dunn
Abstract : The Greenhouse gases, Regulate Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model, vehicle cycle, contains a module to characterize the material and energy consumption associated with producing automotive lithium-ion batteries (Dunn et al. 2015).
This technical memo describes the addition of a 149 kW EV battery with a nickel cobalt aluminum cathode (NCA) material and documents the methodology used to calculate the material and energy flows used in the modeling of this cathode material in GREET. NCA is a fairly common cathode material. It has high capacity, high voltage, and well established performance which make it a promising alternative cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. According to Tanaka (2015) aluminum and cobalt contribute to the thermal stability and the electrochemical properties of this type of cathode material. This cathode material, however, is expensive to produce because of the high cost of nickel and cobalt (Doeff, 2013).

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